In-Text Reference Citations in APA Style

- Parenthetical references in the text include the author’s surname and the year of publication: (Taylor, 2011).
- Page numbers must be included for any direct quotation: “the expectations varied according to the subject studied” (Taylor, 2011, p. 156). In the case of a paraphrase, the page number is not essential, but can be included to help the reader locate the material. The page number is not necessary for a summary.
- In in-text references and in the reference list, when naming multiple authors, an ampersand (&) is used to replace the word “and”: (Smith & Taylor, 2010). If the name of the author appears in the body of the paper, the word “and” must be used instead of the ampersand: Smith and Taylor (2010) discuss this improper use of the case study.

Specific examples:
- Author named in text:
If the author’s name is part of the body of the text, it does not need to be included in the parenthetical reference: Smith (2009) noted that it was part of the project. The same goes for the year of publication. In the following example, no parenthetical reference is necessary, as the information appears in the text: In 2009, Smith reported similar results.
- Multiple authors:
o Two authors: every citation must include both authors’ surnames: (Taylor & Smith, 2010).
o Between three and five authors: all the authors’ surnames are mentioned in the first reference citation: (Kelly, Baker, Willow & York, 2009) but in subsequent reference citations, only the first author’s surname is used, and is followed by “et al.”: (Kelly et al., 2009).
o Six or more authors: the surname of the first author, followed by “et al.” is used in every citation: (Williams et al., 2003).
- No author:
o If there is no author, the item that appears first in the reference list is used. This can be the editor, but usually is the title. As any other reference, the year is also included.
o If the item is a book, periodical or report title, the first word should be capitalized, and the title should appear in italics: (The role of parental support in adolescent health behaviour, 2006).
o If the item is a web page, chapter or article title, all major words should be capitalized, and the title should appear in quotation marks: (“Choices and Pressures of Today’s Youth”, 2007).
- Indirect sources:
o Whenever a source is quoted in another source, it is best to locate and use only the original source. If it cannot be located, use the source you found, and add “as cited in” at the beginning of the reference. Example for a passage by Stanton that was read in an article by Right: Stanton states that “individual differences are rooted in patterns of early interaction” (as cited in Right, 2005, p.53). The Reference list should include only the source you read (in this case, Right).
o Two or more works in the same in-text reference: One citation might refer to two or more studies or to works by different authors. In this case, the two citations should be separated by a semicolon, and arranged alphabetically in the same order as they appear in the Reference List: (Taylor & Smith, 2010; Kelly, 2004).


- Quotation marks that close a quote come before the parenthetical reference. Commas and periods come after parenthetical references: “Quote” (Lewis, 2002, p. 4). However, exclamation marks and question marks that end a quote come before the closing quotation mark. In these cases, a comma or a period is required after the parenthetical reference: “Quote?” (Lewis, 2002, p. 3).
- Block quotations (quotations of more than 40 words) are indented on the left 0.5 inches, double-spaced, and without quotation marks. The necessary citation information is given outside the punctuation that ends the borrowed material. For example:
As Carlton and Lucas (2007) explain,
In the context of modern cognitive psychology, the structural perspective was taken forward and elaborated substantially. The adaptive perspective also has a noticeable important place in the context of the new theory. The individual is seen as part of the dominant group. (p. 267)

Reference List in APA Style

- The bibliographic information is displayed in a format called the Reference List, not Bibliography or Works Cited.
- The entries are listed in alphabetical order, by the authors’ surnames.
- Only the initials of authors’ first names are used.
- Multiple works by the same author should be arranged by publication date, starting with the earliest.
- If the author is a group, the entry should be alphabetized by the first significant word, and the full name should be used (no abbreviations).
- If there is no author, the title is used. Works are alphabetized according to the first significant word (omit “a,” “an,” and “the”).
- The entire reference list should be double-spaced.
- The first line of each entry is not indented, but every line beyond the first of each entry is (hanging indent).
- Article title or chapter title: only the first word of the title and of any subtitle is capitalized. There should be no italics or quotation marks.


American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.