Numarul 12/2003

Efectele percepţiei factorilor economici asupra identităţii europene

Miercuri, 21 Februarie 2007

Vasile Cernat

Rezumat: Ce factori afecteazã identificarea oamenilor cu categorii sociale mari? Sunt ei atraşi de anumite beneficii sau cautã sã fugã de alte identităţi ameninţate? Douã experimente au testat (a) ipoteza cã identificarea europeanã este mai intensã când amorsarea cu informaţii despre consecinţele economice ale integrãrii europene se face în termeni de beneficii decât atunci când se face în termeni de costuri şi (b) ipoteza cã identificarea europeanã este mai intensã când sunt evidenţiate aspecte negative ale economiei naţionale decât atunci când sunt evidenţiate aspecte pozitive ale economiei naţionale. Percepţia unor beneficii economice în urma integrãrii europene a avut efecte semnificative asupra atitudinilor participanţilor români faţã de Europa, dar nu şi asupra identificãrii lor europene. Totuşi, participanţii amorsaţi cu aspecte negative ale economiei naţionale au raportat un nivel mai ridicat de identificare europeanã decât participanţii amorsaţi cu aspecte pozitive ale economiei naţionale. Aceastã situaţie este în concordanţã cu alte rezultate care sugereazã cã, atunci când se confruntã cu o identitate negativã, oamenii tind sã intensifice ataşamentul lor faţã de identităţi alternative pozitive.

Abstract: What factors affect people’s level of identification with large social categories? Are they attracted by some benefits or are they running away from other threatened identities? Two experiments tested (a) the hypothesis that the European identification is stronger when economic benefits rather than economic costs from European integration are made salient, and (b) the hypothesis that European identification is stronger when negative rather than positive features of national economy are made salient. Perception of economic benefits from European integration had a significant effect on participants’ positive attitudes toward Europe, but not on their level of European identification. However, participants who were primed with negative features of the national economy reported a higher level of European identification than the participants who were primed with positive features of the national economy. This is consistent with other results which suggest that, when faced with a negative identity, people tend to increase their commitment to alternative positive identities.

Résumé: Quels facteurs affectent le niveau d’’identification des gens avec des grandes catégories sociales? Sont-ils attirés par quelques avantages ou fuient-ils d’autres identités menacées? Deux expériments ont évalué (a) l’hypothèse que l’identification européenne est plus forte quand des avantages économiques plutôt que des coûts économiques de l’’intégration européenne sont rendus saillants, et (b) l’’hypothèse que l’identification européenne est plus forte quand des caractéristiques négatives plutôt que des caractéristiques positives de l’économie nationale sont rendus saillants. La perception des avantages économiques de l’’intégration européenne a eu un effet significatif sur les attitudes positives des participants vers l’’Europe, mais pas sur leur niveau d’’identification européenne. Toutefois, les participants amorcés avec des caractéristiques négatives de l’’économie nationale ont rapporté un niveau plus élevé d’’identification européenne que les participants amorcés avec des caractéristiques positives de l’’économie nationale. Ceci est conforme aux autres résultats qui suggèrent que, lorsqu’ils sont confrontés avec une identité négative, les gens tendent à augmenter leur engagement aux identités alternatives positives.

Înapoi