Numarul 14/2004

Efectele implicãrii asupra reprezentãrilor sociale ale unui risc colectiv: cazul riscului seismic

Joi, 1 Martie 2007

Andreea Gruev-Vintilã

Rezumat: Acest studiu se înscrie în perspectiva structuralã asupra reprezentãrilor sociale. Ne intereseazã efectele implicãrii asupra reprezentãrilor sociale ale riscului seismic elaborate de o populaţie care are o experienţã colectivã privitoare la cutremure (eşantion românesc) şi de o populaţie care nu are aceastã experienţã (eşantion francez). Rezultatele aratã cã reprezentarea elaboratã de eşantionul românesc este în mod semnificativ mai structuratã decât cea elaboratã de eşantionul francez. Rezultatul este valabil atât pentru componenta normativã a reprezentãrilor (unde se aflã elementele utile pentru evaluare), cât şi pentru componenta lor funcţionalã (care conţine elementele utile pentru acţiune), chiar dacã participanţii nu au trãit un seism ei înşişi. În al doilea rând, rezultatele aratã cã implicarea ridicatã a indivizilor, tradusã prin percepţia cã riscul seismic este o chestiune de importanţã majorã, structureazã semnificativ şi prioritar componenta normativã a reprezentãrii, însã nu are efect asupra componentei ei funcţionale. Sunt evocate câteva consecinţe practice şi teoretice ale acestor rezultate, precum şi necesitatea unor perspective complementare pentru studiul comportamentelor legate de riscurile colective în general şi de riscul seismic în special (e.g. teoria angajamentului).

Abstract: This study uses the structural perspective on the social representations. We test the effects of implication on the social representations of the seismic risk built by a population that has a collective experience of earthquakes (Romanian sample) vs. those who has no such experience (French sample). The results show that the representation built by the Romanians is significantly more structured than the one built by the French. This is true for both the normative component of the social representations (which gathers the elements used for evaluation) and for its functional component (which gathers the elements used for action), and even when the participants have not gone through a major earthquake themselves. The individuals’ implication was then manipulated according to Rouquette’s model (1987). The results show that if the seismic risk is perceived as being an ultimately important matter, i.e., the individuals’ implication with this risk is high, then the normative component of the social representation is significantly structured. Instead, consistently with the theory, no effect of the implication was found as far as the functional component of the social representation was concerned. As a conclusion, some practical and theoretical consequences
of these results are discussed, as well as the need to use complementary approaches when studying the behaviors related to collective risks (e.g., the theory of commitment).

Résumé: Cette recherche s’’inscrit dans l’’approche structurale des représentations sociales. Nous étudions les effets de l’’implication sur les représentations sociales du risque sismique élaborées par une population qui a une expérience collective des séismes (échantillon roumain) et une population qui n’en a pas (échantillon français). Les résultats montrent que la représentation de l’’échantillon roumain est significativement plus structurée que celle de l’’échantillon français. Ce résultat est vrai autant pour la composante normative de la représentation (où on trouve les éléments utiles à l’évaluation) que pour sa composante fonctionnelle (où on trouve les éléments utiles à l’action), et cela même en l’absence de l’expérience personnelle d’un séisme. Par ailleurs, la perception du risque sismique qui en fait un enjeu important et définit un implication élevée structure significativement et avant tout la composante normative de la représentation, mais n’a aucun effet sur sa composante fonctionnelle. Quelques visées pratiques et théoriques de ces résultats sont évoquées, ainsi que la nécessité d’’approches complémentaires dans l’’étude des conduites liées aux risques collectifs en général et au risque sismique en particulier (e.g., théorie de l’’engagement).

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