Numărul 16/2005

Impactul perceperii vitalitãţii etnolingvistice şi a naturii relaţiilor intergrupuri asupra identificãrii sociale şi adaptãrii lingvistice

Vineri, 2 Martie 2007

Dorin Nastas

Rezumat: În baza unui cadru conceptual şi teoretic vast al teoriei identitãţii sociale (Tajfel şi Turner, 1986), teoriei adaptãrii în comunicare (Giles, Mulac, Bradac şi Johnson, 1987), teoriei identitãţii etnolingvistice (Giles, Bourhis şi Taylor, 1977) şi teoriei elaborãrii conflictului (Perez şi Mugny, 1996) au fost propuse o serie de ipoteze despre factorii cardinali care influenţeazã alegerea strategiilor lingvistice de schimbare a codului în contextul comunicãrii bilingve. Într-un experiment cu un design factorial simplu (2 x 2) s-au manipulat sistematic perceperea naturii relaţiilor intergrupuri (relaţii conflictuale vs relaţii de colaborare) şi perceperea vitalitãţii etnolingvistice a ingroup-ului (vitalitate mare vs vitalitate micã). Conform aşteptãrilor, factorii manipulaţi au exercitat o influenţã sistematicã asupra identificãrii sociale şi strategiilor lingvistice, însã contrar aşteptãrilor influenţa acestora a fost independentã, fãrã a exista un efect de interacţiune semnificativ. Ţinând cont de datele obþinute sunt discutate o serie de mecanisme psihologice subiacente care subîntind efectul factorilor manipulaţi.

Résumé: Dans le cadre du vaste champ théorique et conceptuel formé par la théorie de l’’identité sociale (Tajfel et Turner, 1986), la théorie de l’’adaptation en communication (Giles, Mulac, Bradac et Johnson, 1987), la théorie de l’’identité ethnolinguistique (Giles, Bourhis et Taylor, 1977) et la théorie de l’’élaboration du conflit (Perez et Mugny, 1993), on a proposé une série d’’hypothèses sur les facteurs les plus importants qui influencent le choix des stratégies linguistiques de changement du code dans le contexte de la communication bilingue. On a manipulé d’’une manière systématique la perception du caractère des relations intergroupes (relations conflictuelles vs relations de collaboration) et la perception de la vitalité ethnolinguistique dans les in groupes (vitalité puissante vs vitalité faible) dans une expérience avec un design factoriel simple (2 × 2). Selon les attentes, les facteurs manipulés ont exercé une influence systématique sur l’’identité sociale et les stratégies linguistiques, mais d’une manière indépendante, au contraire des attentes, sans qu’’il existe un effet d’’interaction significative. À la suite des données obtenues, on a mis en cause une série de mécanismes psychologiques soujacentes qui peuvent assurer l’’effet des facteurs manipulés.

Abstract: Within a diverse and vast conceptual and theoretical framework that includes the social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), the speech accommodation theory (Giles, Mulac, Bradac and Johnson, 1987), the ethnolinguistic identity theory (Giles, Bourhis and Taylor, 1977) and the conflict elaboration theory (Perez and Mugny, 1996) a series of hypotheses have been proposed regarding the main factors that influence the choice of linguistic code-switching strategies in the bilingual communication. Using a simple factorial design (2 × 2), the perceptions of the nature of intergroup relations (conflictual vs. cooperative) and the perceived ethnolinguistic vitality (high vitality vs. low vitality) were systematically manipulated. As expected, both factors were found to be influential in choosing linguistic strategies. At the same time, contrary to what was hypothesized, those factors influenced the strategies independently one from another, showing no interaction effect. Finally, taking into consideration the results of the study, some ideas were analyzed regarding the underlying mechanisms of the factors influence.

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