Numărul 16/2005

Strategie identitarã în psihologia interculturalã: aspecte teoretice şi metodologice

Vineri, 2 Martie 2007

Caroline Temple

Rezumat: Atunci când emigrantul îşi pãrãseşte ţara pentru a locui într-o altã societate, el se implicã într-un proces de restructurare identitarã dinamic care poate fi perceput prin conceptul de strategii identitare. Operaţionalizarea lor, în contextul interculturalizãrii, este posibilã graţie clasificãrii fãcute de Camilleri (1990). În acelaşi timp, înţelegerea lor necesitã realizarea unui instrument capabil sã perceapã reacţiile identitare ale migranţilor în diferite situaţii care implicã diferenţa culturalã. Autoarea prezintã metoda originalã elaboratã şi aplicatã într-o cercetare care vizeazã identificarea strategiilor identitare angajate de migranţii de origine japonezã şi senegalezã în Franþa. O preanchetã calitativã permite depistarea universurilor lexicale specifice care servesc drept suport contextual şi semantic pentru elaborarea unui chestionar. Acesta prezintã situaţii interculturale problematice fictive şi sunt oferite migranţilor mai multe soluţii, fiecare trimiţând la o strategie identitarã particularã. Rezultatele obţinute de la cei 173 de respondenţi permit confirmarea utilitãţii acestei metode şi a paletei largi de
utilizare a strategiilor identitare de cãtre migranţi, confirmându-se astfel ideea pluralitãţii identitare.

Résumé: Lorsqu’’il quitte son pays d’origine pour aller vivre dans une autre société, le migrant s’engage dans un processus dynamique de restructuration identitaire qui peut être saisi à partir du concept de stratégies identitaires. Leur opérationnalisation, dans le contexte d’’interculturation, est rendue possible grâce aux catégorisations de Camilleri (1990). Cependant, leur appréhension nécessite la construction d’un outil capable de saisir les réactions identitaires des migrants dans différentes situations qui mettent en jeu la différence culturelle. L’auteur rend compte de la méthode originale élaborée et appliquée dans une recherche visant à repérer les stratégies identitaires utilisées par des migrants d’origine japonaise et sénégalaise en France. Une pré-enquête qualitative permet de dégager des univers lexicaux spécifiques qui servent de support contextuel et sémantique à l’élaboration d’un questionnaire. Celui-ci relate des situations interculturelles problématiques fictives pour lesquelles plusieurs solutions sont proposées au migrant, chacune renvoyant à une stratégie identitaire particulière. Les résultats obtenus auprès de 173 répondants permettent de confirmer l’’intérêt de cette méthode et de conclure à une grande diversité d’’usage des stratégies identitaires par les migrants, confirmant ainsi l’’idée de pluralité de l’’identité.

Abstract: When the migrant leaves his home country to live in another society, he involves in a dynamic identity restructuration process that the concept of identity strategies graps very well. In the interculturation context, its translation from theory into concrete indicators is possible with Camilleri’s categories (1990). However, the elaboration of a tool, able to catch migrants’ identity reactions in various situations of cultural differences, is necessary to grasp these strategies. The author submits a singular method, elaborated and applied in a research to clarify which sort of identity strategies are used by Japanese and Senegalese migrants living in France. A preliminary survey allows to establish specific lexical structures which are used as contextual and semantic supports to elaborate a questionnaire. This one relates difficult fictitious intercultural situations that have to be solved. Several solutions are offered to the migrant. Each of them refers to a particular identity strategy. The results obtained from 173 persons permit to emphasize the interest of this method and conclude that identity strategies are used by migrants in many different ways. So, it confirms the theory of plural identities.

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