Numărul 17/2006

Dépendance informationnelle et styles de comportement dans l’’influence sociale

Vineri, 2 Martie 2007

Gabriel Mugny, Alain Quiamzade, Ana Trandafir

Résumé: Des étudiantes universitaires roumaines inscrites en 1ère année d’études (N = 100) ont été confrontées à une prétendue étude scientifique sur des groupes d’’amis qui contredisait leurs croyances initiales. Dans un plan factoriel 2 × 2, on a manipulé le style (autoritaire ou démocratique) du message contradictoire délivré par la source. La seconde variable, invoquée, concernait l’’adhésion (haute ou basse) à l’idée d’une dépendance informationnelle dans les rapports académiques. La principale mesure concernait le degré auquel les sujets s’appropriaient l’information contredisant leurs croyances initiales. L’’analyse de variance met en évidence que l’effet d’interaction est significatif. On observe que les participantes n’’admettant que faiblement l’’idée de dépendance informationnelle ne sont pas sensibles au style de la source. Celles qui l’’admettent hautement et qui sont confrontées à la source démocratique expriment une représentation qui est plus éloignée de celle suggérée par la source que celles confrontées à la source autoritaire. Chez ces dernières, des analyses corrélationnelles mettent en lumière deux dynamiques contrastées, la dépendance informationnelle face au style autoritaire, et le désengagement face au style démocratique.
Mots clés: Appropriation, dépendance informationnelle, styles d’influence, représentations sociales.

Rezumat: Un numãr de studenţi români (N = 100) au fost confruntaţi cu un presupus studiu ştiiţþific despre grupurile de prieteni care contrazicea opiniile anterioare. Într-un design factorial de tip 2 × 2, am manipulat stilul (autoritar vs democratic) al mesajului contradictoriu transmis de autoritatea epistemicã. A doua variabilã independentã se referea la gradul (scãzut vs ridicat) de aprobare de cãtre participanţi al noţiunii de dependenţã informaţionalã a studenţilor faţã de profesorii lor. Principala unitate de mãsurã a fost însuşirea informaţiei contradictorii. Rezultatele aratã o interacţiune a celor douã variabile. Pentru studenţii care admit dependenţa informaţionalã a studenţilor într-un grad mai redus, nu existã nici o diferenţã între cele douã stiluri. Studenţii care admit dependenţa informaţionalã într-un grad mai ridicat exprimã o reprezentare a grupurilor de prieteni care este mai apropiatã de cea a sursei atunci când aceasta era autoritarã decât atunci când era democraticã. Pentru aceastã din urmã categorie de studenţi, corelaţiile cu alte mãsurãtori aratã o dinamicã în contrast: dependenţa informaţionalã ghideazã influenţa atunci când sursa este autoritarã, pe când lipsa de implicare este legatã de lipsa de influenţã atunci când sursa e democraticã.

Abstract: First year Romanian students (N = 100) were confronted to an alleged scientific study about friendship groups that contradicted previous beliefs. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we manipulated the style (authoritarian vs. democratic) of the contradictory message delivered by the epistemic authority. The second independent variable concerned the participants (low vs. high) approval of the notion of an informational dependence of students toward their teachers. The main measure was the appropriation of the contradictory information. Results show an interaction of both variables. For the students who admit the informational dependence of students at a lower level there is no difference between both styles. The students who admit the informational dependence at a higher level express a representation of friendship groups that is closer to the source’s one when the source was authoritarian than when it was democratic. For those last students correlations with other measures show contrasted dynamics: Informational dependence guides the influence when the source is authoritarian whereas disengagement is linked to the lack of influence when the source is democratic.

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