Numărul 21 / 2008

Dyadic conflicts and motivational empathy: The Method of Motivational Induction and the accuracy of reciprocal inferences about motives

Vineri, 19 Decembrie 2008

Cãtãlin Mamali

Abstract: Because in the everyday life people make inferences about the kind and intensity of others’ motives the present study explores the process through which non-experts make inferences about others’ motives. The self-determination theory predicted and many empirical studies inspired by it proved that the dynamic of the relations between intrinsic and extrinsic motives is influenced by social cues and relationships (Cozzolino et. al., 2004; Deci et. al., 2001; Senécal et. al., 2001). The construct and method of empathic accuracy (Ickes, 1993) opened new perspectives on the interaction between motivation and interpersonal cognitive processes. The motivational empathy is assessed through the accuracy of motivational inferences and is considered a distinctive indicator of motivational intelligence (Mamali, 1998). Using the Method of Motivational Induction (Nuttin, Lens, 1980/1985) participants were asked to make inferences about the motives of others. After each participant completed one’s own MIM and after the participants have been grouped in three types of dyads based on the results of their prior sociometrical test they made inferences about the partners. motives. The 72 dyads in which each participants was asked to make accurate inferences about the other motives were: +/+, reciprocal attractions (26); +/-, contradictory relations (22); -/-, reciprocal rejection (24).
The findings suggest that those who belong to reciprocal attraction dyads display the highest involvement in finalizing the approximation of the partner’s motives. Also the data suggest that those who form the reciprocal rejection dyads and finalize their approximations of other’s motives achieve inferences with highest level of accuracy.
Key words: motivational empathy, reciprocal motivational inferences, intrinsic and extrinsic motives.

Rezumat: Pornind de la constatarea cã în viaţa cotidianã oamenii fac deseori inferenţe asupra tipului şi intensităţii motivelor celorlaţi studiul explorã tocmai procesul prin care non-experţii aproximeazã motivele celorlalţi. Teoria auto-determinãrii prezice şi multe studii empirice inspirate de aceasta dovedesc cã dinamica relaţiilor între motivele intrinseci şi cele extrinseci este influenţatã de relaţii şi factori sociali (Cozzolino et. al., 2004; Deci et. al., 2001; Senécal et. al., 2001). Constructul de acurateţe empaticã şi metoda asociatã (Ickes, 1993) oferã a nouã perspectivã asupra interacţiunii dintre motivaţie şi procesele cognitive interpersonale. Empatia motivaţionalã este evaluatã pe baza acurateţii inferenţelor motivaţionale şi este consideratã un indicator distinctiv al inteligenţei motivaţionale (Mamali, 1998). Folosind Metoda Inducţiei Motivaţionale (Nuttin, Lens, 1980, 1985) s-a solicitat participanţilor sã facã inferenţe asupra motivelor celorlalţi. Dupã ce fiecare particpant a rãspuns pentru sine la MIM şi dupã ce participanţii au fost grupaţi în 3 tipuri de diade generate pe baza testului sociometric aceştia au fost solicitaţi sã facã inferenţe asupra motivelor partenerului (partenerei) de diadã utilizând tot MIM, dar aplicatã din perspectiva celuilalt. Cele 72 de diade în care fiecare participant a fost solicitat sã facã inferenţe corecte asupra motivelor partenerului au fost: +/+, atracţie reciprocã (26); +/-, relaţii contradictorii 22); (-/-) respingere reciprocã (24).
Rezultatele sugerezã cã cei ce aparţin diadelor de atracţie reciprocã manifestã cel mai înalt grad de finalizare a procesului de aproximare a motivelor celuilalt. Rezulatele sugereazã de asemnea cã cei care aparţin diadelor de respingere reciprocã şi finalizeazã procesul de aproximare a motivelor celuilalt ating nivelul cele mai ridicat de acurateţe a inferenţelor motivaţionale.
Cuvinte cheie: emaptie motivaţionalã, inferenţe motivaţionale reciproce, motive intrinseci şi extrinseci.