Numarul 23 / 2009

Disonanþa cognitivã ca metodã de reducere a prejudecãtii

Vineri, 4 Iunie 2010

Alina Georgiana Pitulac, Mihaela Boza

Abstract: This study was aimed to determine the influence of cognitive dissonance and social labeling on the level of prejudice the participants will show towards the rroma ethnic minority. The hypotheses were: a) participants in the free choice condition will diminish their level of prejudice significantly more that participants in the condition of forced compliance; b) participants from the condition label gypsy will be more prejudiced that participants in the condition label rroma. The method is experimental using a 2×2x2 mixed design with repeated measures. The independent variables are: free choice/forced compliance, label gypsy/rroma, and test/retest, and the dependent variable was the level of prejudice. The participants are 115 students, 20-25 years old (75 female participants).
The results indicate a main effect for the test/retest variable, all participants showing a decrease in the level of prejudice in retest. There is also an interaction effect between the type of choice and the repeated measure. In the free choice condition, participants show significant decrease in their level of prejudice in retest, while participants in the forced compliance condition do not, thus confirming the first hypothesis. There was no effect for the labeling and consequently the second hypothesis is disconfirmed.

Résumé: L.étude présente l.effet de la dissonance cognitive et de l.étiquette sociale sut le préjugement envers la minorité rroma. Les hypothèses sont: a) les participants de la condition choix libre vont diminuer leur niveau de préjugement davantage que les participants dans la condition soumission forcée; b) les participants dans la condition étiquette gitan serons plus prejuges que les participants dans la condition étiquette rroma. La méthode est expérimentale, avec un plan factoriel 2×2x2. Les variables indépendantes sont: choix libre/soumission forcée, étiquette gitan / rroma, mesure initiale/finale et la variable dépendante c.est le préjugement. Les participants sont 115 étudiants, âgés de 20 à 25 ans, dont 75 participants féminins. Les résultats montrent un effet principal du moment de la mesure, tous les participants ont diminue leur niveau du préjugement pour la mesure finale. Il y a un effet d.interaction entre les variables moment de la mesure et type de choix. Dans la condition de libre choix les participants montrent une diminution significative de leur niveau de préjugement entre la mesure initiale et finale, tandis que, les sujets de la condition de soumission forcée ne le font pas. La première hypothèse a été confirmée. Nous n’avons pas trouve un effet de l’étiquetage et la deuxième hypothèse est infirmée.

Rezumat: În cadrul acestui studiu am observat efectele inducerii unei stãri de disonanþã cognitivã ºi a activãrii unei etichete categoriale asupra prejudecãþilor subiecþilor faþã etnia rromã. Ipoteze studiului au fost: a)subiecþii din condiþia alegere liberã îºi diminueazã prejudecata semnificativ mai mult decât subiecþii din condiþia alegere forþatã; b) subiecþii din condiþia eticheta tigani vor avea un nivel mai crescut al prejudecãþii decât subiecþii din condiþia etichetã rromi. Metoda utilizatã este experimentul, cu un plan factorial mixt, de tip 2×2x2, cu mãsurãri repetate. Variabilele independente sunt: alegere liberã/forþatã, etichetã þigani/rromi, momentul mãsurãrii iniþial/ final, iar variabila dependentã a fost nivelul prejudecãþii. Participanþii sunt 115 studenþi, de 20 pânã la 25 de ani, din care 75 sunt de gen feminin.
Rezultatele indicã un efect principal al variabilei momentul mãsurãrii, la toþi subiecþii nivelul declarat al prejudecãþii scãzând la mãsura finalã faþã de cea iniþialã. Existã un efect combinat al variabilelor momentul mãsurãrii ºi alegere, subiecþii din condiþia alegere liberã manifestã o
scãdere semnificativã a nivelului de prejudecatã la evaluarea finalã, în timp de subiecþii din condiþia alegere forþatã nu îºi schimbã semnificativ nivelul prejudecãþii, confirmând astfel prima
ipotezã. Nu existã un efect principal al variabilei etichetã, rezultat care infirmã ipoteza a doua.
Cuvinte-cheie: disonanta cognitiva, prejudecata, etichetare sociala, minoritate rromã