Reliability and Validity of a Romanian Version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire

Nicoleta Mihaela Cramaruc


Since 2010 the interest in workplace mobbing has been increasing in Romania too. The Negative Acts Questionnaire is one of the most frequently used questionnaires for assessing these issues. The purpose of this study was to develop a Romanian version of the NAQ. The multi-occupational sample of 268 Romanian employees was recruited from various private and public work areas. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient for the entire NAQ scale was 0.88. A three-factor model was obtained from the exploratory factor analysis and the Cronbach Alpha coefficients for the three subscales were 0.76 (work-related mobbing), 0.81 (person-related mobbing) and 0.71 (other discriminatory criteria-related mobbing). A comparative analysis allowed us to identify a similarity of the person-related mobbing subscale between our three-factor model and the ones of Stale Einarsen and Bjorn Inge Raknes (1997), Gonzalez Trijueque and Grana Gomez (2009) and Jiro Takaki et al. (2010). This Romanian version appears to have acceptable levels of internal consistency, reliability and factor validity.

workplace mobbing, perpetrator, victim, scale development, factor model

Nicoleta Mihaela Cramaruc – Al. I. Cuza University, Iaşi, Romania, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences E-mail:

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