Verifying the psychometric properties of two instruments measuring workplace bullying among Romanian employees

Teodora Chirilă, Ticu Constantin


Despite the fact that workplace bullying is increasingly being recognized as a serious problem in society today, at present, there is no Romanian instrument able to measure this phenomenon. This article investigates, on Romanian employees, the psychometric properties of two well-known instruments existing in workplace bullying literature: (1) Negative Acts Questionnaire Revised- NAQ-R (Einarsen, Hoel & Notelaers, 2009) and (2) Escala de Abuso Psicologico Applicado en el Lugar de Trabajo-EAPAT (Escartin, Rodriguez-Carballeira, Gomez-Benito, & Zapf, 2010). These instruments were translated using the back-translation method and analyses such as: (1) Exploratory Factor Analyses-EFA; (2) Confirmatory Factor Analyses-CFA; (3) Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and (4) correlations between the two scales were employed. EFA revealed three main factors for the Romanian version of NAQ-R and four main factors for the Romanian version of EAPAT. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were greater than .70 for both scales and CFA results showed a better fit for the Romanian model of NAQ-R. Also correlational analyses showed a good convergent validity between the two scales meaning that they have the same measurements of a psychological construct.The results of this article provide one instrument able to measure the perception of workplace bullying in Romanian workplace settings.

workplace bullying scales, exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses

Teodora Chirilă – Al. I. Cuza University, Iaşi, Romania, E-mail:
Ticu Constantin – Al. I. Cuza University, Iaşi, Romania, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, E-mail:

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